French begin construction of Panama Canal.
The French hire 30,000 West Indians to work on construction.
Ferdinand de Lesseps, the French diplomat directing construction, abandons the project. Some 20,000 people have died, mostly from malaria and yellow fever, during the eight-year endeavor. Another 5,000 would die during the U.S. construction phase.
U.S. Asst. Naval Secretary Theodore Roosevelt supports a canal crossing Panama.
U.S. Senate votes in favor of Panama, rather than Nicaragua, as site for a canal through Central America.
Panama declares independence from Colombia and the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty is signed granting the U.S. a narrow strip of land across the Isthmus of Panama and the right to build a canal.
he United States buys canal equipment and infrastructure from the French for $40 million and acquires control of the Panama Canal Zone from Panama for $10 million. The U.S. dollar becomes Panama’s official currency. Construction begins on the canal.
Work begins on the locks, which are 80 feet high and 100 feet long.
Aug. 15, 1914
The 50-mile-long canal opens to ship traffic. SS Ancon is the first ship to traverse the waterway.
Some 10,000 protestors oppose the presence of U.S. military bases on Panamanian soil. U.S. evacuates its bases and military installations outside the Canal Zone.
A tumultuous year in which anti-U.S. rioting erupts, including the so-called flag riots. Students at Balboa High raise the U.S. flag in defiance of a 1963 ban against flying any flags in front of Canal-Zone schools — a measure adopted to ease growing tension over U.S. control of the zone. Panamanian students march to the school and attempt to raise their flag, which gets torn. Scuffling and then full-scale violence breaks out on the border between Panama City and the canal zone and then spreads across the country. Twenty-one Panamanians and three U.S. soldiers are killed in the clashes.
Panama briefly breaks relations with the U.S. and demands the canal treaty be renegotiated.
Negotiations on a more equitable canal agreement take place under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.
During the Carter administration, negotiations are completed for new canal treaties that call for the eventual turnover of the canal to Panama.
Panama Canal Treaties, which return the Canal Zone but not the canal to Panama, become law.
The United States sends 24,000 troops to oust Panamanian strongman Gen. Manuel Noriega in an operation that has been described as part drug raid, part war.
Creation of Panama Canal Authority and the U.S. Southern Command pulls out and moves its operations to Doral.
Dec, 31, 1999
The canal is returned to Panama.
Panama begins planning to enlarge the canal to accommodate larger post Panamax ships.
Oct. 22, 2006
Panamanians vote for the $5.25 billion expansion project.
Contracts awarded for various parts of the expansion. The largest, a $3.2 billion contract for construction of new locks, is awarded to a consortium that includes Spain, Panama, Belgium and Italy.
June 30, 2010
Expansion work on third set of locks begins. Panamanian President Ricardo Martinelli says, “Today a new future begins for the country.’’
Target date for completion of the expansion — six months beyond the date in the contract.
Sources: Miami Herald staff, Panama-Guide, Panama Canal Museum website